Sunday, December 30, 2018

Netflix Stops in-app subscription option for iOS users

Netflix iOS app

iOS users will no longer be able to renew and review their subscription on Netflix app. New users and users reviewing after a month have to bill their purchases in Netflix website and then login into the Netflix app.

This is going to impact the iPhone and iPad users as they will no longer be able to make a purchase in the Netflix app. This is being said that this is a backlash against Apple's charging a hefty commission of high 30 percent revenue cut from in-app purchases.

However, this change came earlier this November, Netflix looked for some way around in a VentureBeat article. The report said that users who are already paying via iTunes may continue to do so. However, users renewing after a month or new users will have to do the payments on the Netflix website and then login into the Netflix app on iOS.

Normally Apple takes 30 percent of the revenues made via in-app purchases. This may lower down to 15 percent for long-term subscribers, but even then many developers complained that it takes away a substantial amount of their revenue. This is one of the reasons why apps on iOS are expensive than Android.

There has been a discussion around this that it is unfair to take away a cut for the content that is not produced or even hosted by Apple.

Let me know in the comments what do you think about this. Keep reading.




Reliance JIO Happy New Year Offer - Get 100% cashback on Rs. 399 Recharge



Reliance JIO is back with a limited period offer, "Happy New Year" offer that will give you 100 percent cashback on recharges of Rs. 399.  This offer is valid on recharges done through My JIO app and through Reliance Digital Stores.

The cashback will be in the form of a gift voucher that can be redeemable at AJIO app and website. The voucher amount would be Rs. 399 that can be applied to the purchase of Rs. 1000 and above on AJIO app and website.

The Happy New year offer is LIVE now and is valid through January 31, 2019. The AJIO voucher will be valid till March 31, 2019.

The Rs. 399 recharge offers 1.5 GB daily high-speed data with unlimited local and STD calling including roaming. Also, it offers daily 100 SMSes. The validity of this recharge is 84 days.



TRAI Gives a Month to Choose Channel Under The New Rule

photo by espensorvik is licensed under CC BY 2.0 CC BY 2.0

Today everybody is in dilemma in India that what will happen from tomorrow that is 30th December 2018. Today is the last day to select channel packs under the new framework designed by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). Today TRAI has announced a new date that is January 31, 2019, where consumers can select the channel packs under the new rule for broadcasting and cable services. Till then all the existing plans and services will remain as it is and will continue uninterrupted. 

The TRAI in March 2017, had released the new regulatory framework for Broadcasting and Cable services and re-notified on July 3, 2018. about the implementation schedule. According to the plan all the service providers like Airtel, Tata Sky etc were required to prepare and be ready with the migration plan by December 28, 2018, as the new framework is going to start from the very next day.

TRAI held planning and consultation meetings with broadcasters and service providers to facilitate them for smooth migration into the new framework. They were given ample time to implement this.

"All existing packs/plans/bouquets to the subscriber will continue uninterrupted till January 31, 2019. No service provider to disconnect any signal or feed to any MSO (multi-system operators)/LSO (Local Cable Operators)/subscriber till January 2019. TRAI said in a statement.

In order to get the things implemented smoothly, TRAI held a series of meetings with the stakeholders including Consumers Advocacy Groups (CAG) during the last 4-6 weeks. TRAI said in a statement. What they concluded from those meetings that since the customer base is huge around 150 million and to make them aware about this new framework requires some more time and resources of service providers.

"Subsequently, the Authority (TRAI)  also held meetings on December 19 and December 27 with various service providers of broadcasting and cable services sector. The preparedness for migration of all subscribers from old to new framework was also accessed," TRAI said.

TRAI said that smooth migration from old to new regulatory framework was discussed and it was found that most of the stakeholders are ready for the implementation of the new regulatory framework. TRAI said DPO shall declare the Distributor Retail Price (DRP) and Network Capacity Fee (NCF) by December 29.

The government said on Thursday that new framework for broadcasting and cable services will provide "freedom of choice" and give consumers "direct control" on their monthly bill for television services.

Saturday, December 29, 2018

Simmba - Movie Review

Image is taken from YouTube screenshot

Simmba is a typical Rohit Shetty film where you will find catchy dialogues, amazing action scenes and is full of emotions. Simmba is a masala entertainer and masala entertainer movies have their own significance in the mainstream cinema if they are made rightly.

Storyline of Simmba
An orphan kid decided to become a police officer, but with the only intention of making money. Ranveer Singh playing the character of Simmba (Sangram Bhalerao) grows up to become ACP or we can say a corrupt ACP.

As the story continues, Simmba gets transferred to a place where Sonu Sood playing the character of Durva Ranade is supreme and has a number of illegal businesses running in his name. Durva's dialog and policy in the movie is "Main kisi ko chhedta nhi, aur agar koi mujhe chhede to usse chhodta nahi".  As Simmba's sole motive to join police force was to make money, he starts serving this man and Durva throws money to him to overlook his all illegal activities.

Image taken from YouTube screenshot

Simmba's morality changes when he comes to know that Durva's two brothers rapes and murder a girl Aakruti Dave played by Vaidehi Parshurami whom Simmba considers as his sister.

Simmba then turns into an honest police officer and swears to fight for Aakruti's justice. However, Durva the powerful criminal took stand for his rapist brothers and buys the witnesses and erase the evidences. Now the climax of the story is how Simmba avenges Aakruti's death.

Performances
Ranveer Singh in the lead role as a corrupt and then an honest police officer felt he is doing overacting, but does a better job in the second half. With his performance in the movie, he has proved that he has the ability to entertain the masses.

Image is taken from YouTube screenshot

Sara Ali Khan playing the role of Shagun, who is also Simmba's girlfriend looked beautiful but has not much to do in the movie.

Image is taken from YouTube screenshot

Sonu Sood in the negative role is also good and his character looks significant thoughout the film.

Ashutosh Rana plays a head constable as Nityanand Mohile also does a good job.

However, Ajay Devgan's cameo in the film steals the show. Audiences were pulled of their seats on his entry on the screen.
Image is taken from YouTube screenshot


Verdict
Simmba is a masala entertainer film. There are points in the film that looked illogical. Means if you are watching a Rohit Shetty movie, leave you brain behind and just watch the film for entertainment. Too many songs in the first half irritated the audience and today's audience do not like too many songs in the movie. However Ajay Devgan's cameo worth a whistle and if you are looking for a masala entertainer that do not require to use your brain, then go and watch this movie.






Thursday, December 27, 2018

How Technology Is Evolving - SingleWindowTech

Another year is about to come to an end. It will leave some footprints behind, and when we look back we find some great development in the field of technology. 2019 will bring some new advancements but to talk about 2018 there were some great developments and innovation which I am going to share with you.

1. Google Duplex

In the year 2018, Google displayed an AI feature in its I/O developer conference. It is called the Google Duplex. The Duplex was an innovative feature that blew everyone's mind. It is built as a feature inside Google Assistant. It can call the restaurant and make a reservation for you and can also do more. The voice of Duplex is like human and the way of talking is like that the person on the other side of the phone cannot make out if its a human or a robot he is talking to.

Google Duplex
Credit: Digital Trends



The tech giant demonstrated this feature live and guess what, it did not sound like a robot. Surprisingly it added a little "hmm" and "umm" into the conversation to make it sound more realistic. This could be a game changer in the way we use our smartphones. I mean just imagine, you just ask the Google Assistant to make a reservation in a hotel and it is done. How amazing is that?

However, this could be a very handy feature but could be a little creepy too. But Google has assured that Duplex will properly notify that a call is being made from a robot when it is working.

Duplex has started rolling out in the US for Pixel users.

2. Digital Wellbeing on Android and Screen time in iOS

Technology is growing so is our dependency on gadgets like smartphones. It is being observed everywhere in the world that technology has overtaken the human interaction. People are nowadays are more busy with their smartphones rather than interacting with other people around.

SceenTime and Digital Wellbeing
Credit: macworld.com
This year, the two largest mobile operating system giants Google and Apple decided to change this trend. Google and Apple, both announced a new feature build in their operating systems that measure how much time a user is spending on their mobile devices. Google added Digital Wellbeing and Apple added Screen Time. This feature is available on Pie version of Android and iOS 12. Later this year Facebook and Instagram also added this feature. These features have different interfaces on their respective platforms but they share the same goal.

The idea is to spend less time staring at your smartphone and do something more productive.

3. Lookout by Google

Google in it's I/O developer conference this year announced another fantastic app called Lookout. This app is developed to help those who are visually impaired. This app helps them to make more independent. The app offers verbal notifications about user environment, helping those who cannot see. This app is capable of reading signs on doors like Entry and Exit.

Google Lookout
Credit: engadget.com


There are four modes to choose from - home, work and play, scan, and experimental. Each mode enables the app to look for specific cues about the user's current environment. This app could be exclusive to Pixel devices and is powered by Google Lens.

Google lens was launched last year but it is made public this year only. Google lens has the ability to identify a large number of things, precisely billion of them when a user points the camera towards the object to be identified. Google Lens can read information from a business card and save it to a contact in your phone. It can also recognize some people, shapes and wireless networks. It can be very useful for people who travel a lot and also help them translating signboards written in a different language.


4. WebAuthn

Passwords are annoying sometimes. It becomes very difficult for us to remember all the passwords that we created in our online world. This year FIDO and W3C revealed that they are going to kill the password system with WebAuthn.
WebAuthn is a new protocol that eliminates the use of the password. The popular browser makers like Google, Microsoft, and Mozilla have agreed to integrate WebAuthn within their browsers. Users will have to use physical security key(USB) or mobile devices instead of a password. This is a very convenient feature for Internet users across the world. Ohh...I am waiting for this desperately.

5. Otter App

Otter is a mobile app that can automatically transcribe your voice recordings. This app is a bit different from the other similar apps available. It is meant for long conversations and can transcribe quite accurately. Otter is perfect for meetings and interviews where more than one person is talking. The app captures the audio, transcribe the content and archive it that can be easily searched. the app is available for both Android and iOS.

Credit: mashable.com

2019 is about to begin and we will see significant growth and some new innovation in this field which will make our lives more convenient. Stay tuned for more updates on technology news like this.




Tuesday, December 11, 2018

Should you get the MacBook Air 2018 ?


MacBook Air 2018
MacBook Air 2018. Credit: Apple


Lightness strikes again. Is it? Let's find out.


Hello there, hope you guys are doing well. In this article, I will be talking about the new MacBook Air. We will find out is it worth upgrading to the new MacBook Air from the old one which is an icon. It was unarguably the first-ever Ultrabook. Are the changes done significant enough to invest almost double the amount compared to the older one as Apple is selling the older version also?

Here we will talk about the base model of MacBook Air.

The specifications of it are: 13.3-inch Retina display, Intel 8th Gen  processor with Apple T2 security chip, 8 GB RAM, 256 GB SSD, 3 x USB Type C with Thunderbolt, FaceTime HD Camera, MacOS Mojave

Apple MacBook Air is priced in India for Rs 1,14,900. Check it out here on Amazon India.

Also read: PC vs. Mac

The MacBook AIR Design 

The MacBook Air was first launched in 2008. It was a game changer then. It proved that you could have a powerful and feature-packed machine in a thin casing. It created a new segment in the laptops which was then called UltraBook. UltraBook was a premium segment which is beautiful, powerful and above all lightweight.

MacBook Air 2018
MacBook Air 2018. Credit: Apple


Since the first MacBook Air design has a huge impact on the laptop market, hoping that on 10th anniversary Apple would do something revolutionary this time also. But, after seeing the MacBook Air 2018 design I am a little bit disappointed. Looks like this time Apple has played safe with MacBook Air 2018 design. This means this is not a game changer like the previous one but it carries the same iconic thin and light design.

So this time MacBook Air 2018 is thinner as compared to its predecessor with dimensions of 11.97 x 8.36 x 0.61 inches. There's still wedge-shaped design to this Air, so it tapers off to 0.16 inches at its thinnest point.

Also what I noticed in the new MacBook Air, it carries the same width and depth as the 13-inch MacBook Pro, while being a bit thinner and lighter.

MacBook Air 2018
MacBook Air 2018. Credit: Apple

Since the new MacBook Air is thinner and lighter, it does not mean that features are compromised on this. You still get 13.3-inch, 2560 x 1600 LED, 300nits Retina Display. The huge aluminum bezel is gone now and now there is glass extended edge to edge. The pixel density is 227 pixels per inch(PPI). The retina display is four times sharpers and clearer than the previous generation MacBook Air. Unlike the MacBook Pro, it does not feature the True Tone technology which adjusts the brightness of the screen depending upon the ambient light. Also, the screen is not as bright as the MacBook Pro. The previous generation MacBook Air display suffers from a great problem of viewing angles which has been rectified in the newer model.

This time Apple used recycled aluminum to build the new MacBook Air.

MacBook Air 2018
MacBook Air 2018. Credit: Apple

As we know history repeats itself and Apple has a history of removing things as it progresses with time. This time Apple has removed the glowing logo from this new MacBook Air. This has been replaced by a shiny metal one that stands out from the rest of the matte finish body. There is no card reader and a USB Type A port. The future belongs to Thunderbolt 3, which can charge the device, can be connected to an external monitor or can charge another device also. But as the legacy continues, you need some adaptors to extend its functionalities.

There is a small problem with the Type C port placements as they are a bit closer. It may be problematic to use one when the device is charging from another one. The only other port available is 3.5mm audio connector - an increasingly rare sight on Apple products – on the right-hand side.

MacBook Air 2018
MacBook Air 2018. Credit: Apple
The keyboard has been also redesigned that features Apple's third generation butterfly mechanism. This is the same one that is available on MacBook Pro. This is quieter than the previous one and has an ample amount of travel and the right amount of space between keys. The keyboard is backlit like the previous one and the brightness is adjustable.

On the extreme top right there is the Touch ID sensor. This just makes life much easier by unlocking the laptop with just a touch. The Touch ID is accurate, fast and works all the time.

Apple is offering a range of colors for the MacBook Air: Space Gray, Gold, and traditional Silver.

Overall we can say the design isn't new but Apple has done a good job to improve the look and feel for the new MacBook Air.

Also read: Android vs. iPhone

The Performance of MacBook AIR

When it comes to performance, it is no less than its predecessor. The app launches, the multi-tasking, and the gestures, all worked like a charm. In the performance part, you are not going to get disappointed. You don't need to keep the count of tabs open in the browser or number of apps open in the background.

This notebook can handle photo editing and basic video editing too. You can use heavy software like Adobe Photoshop for photo editing and Final Cut Pro for a 1080 Full HD video editing. Doing these won't be an issue with the new MacBook Air.

Since this is a notebook for everyday use and using heavy software may lead to running the fan on full throttle to cool down the device. You may hear some noise sometimes. This is something you should not be worried about as this is not resulting in tapered performance.

Coming to the sound part, the new MacBook Air sounds much better than the previous one. It is louder and clearer than before. Despite the smalle size, they produce twice the bass and are 25 percent louder. There are two speakers besides the keyboard, they are much louder to enjoy a streaming video. The T2 security chip built into the MacBook air offers some security features also adds a feature of virtually spacing the speakers to maximize the surround effect.

The 720-pixel facetime camera and 3 microphone array are decent for taking some video calls but look outdated in 2018 as the rival laptops come with full HD 1080p camera which gives a better calling experience.

The Battery

The famous battery of MacBook Air lasts for the whole working day even when the full features are used and the display is working at full brightness. You can improve it though by reducing the brightness, not using the speakers at full throttle. Even though you run out of power, you can charge this with any USB Type C adaptor, though the Apple charger is highly recommended to use all the time.

The Verdict

Well if you are looking for a portable machine for every day use and also can do some heavier tasks occasionally, that the new MacBook Air is the best choice. Though this time it priced double than the previous generation, it becomes difficult to recommend people to buy MacBook Air or invest a few bucks more to get a MacBook Pro. In my opinion, you are the best judge, look what you require, wait for the prices to drop and then I would say you can go for the MacBook Air. If you wish to buy at this price, I would recommend putting some extra bucks and get a MacBook Pro.






Friday, December 7, 2018

Understanding 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Network

WiFi is like oxygen nowadays. One cannot live without an internet connection. Today we all use wifi at our homes and offices and few of us are familiar with 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands. These are nothing but frequency bands of the router in which the signal is propagated.  Most of the devices that we purchase today which have the wifi capability and the frequency band are mentioned on it on which it can be operated. Lot many people don't know the difference between these two and that led to a lot of confusion.
Stay tuned with this article and I will try to explain the difference between these two and will also try to find if it is any better.


How do WiFi works? 


Before understanding the 5GHz network, first, we have to understand how wifi works. A wifi network uses radio waves to transfer data across the network. The range that radio waves cover is around 3KHz to 300 GHz. The frequency used for wifi is 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. When the first wifi released for public use, an organization named IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) set up a committee called the "IEEE802" which release a set of standards CALLED THE "802.11" FOR implementing the wireless LAN (Local Area Network) (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4 and 5 GHz frequency bands.

This is the reason WLAN certification on our devices is written like 802.11 followed by letters a,b, g, n, ac. These letters signify the next standard in wireless technology. The 802.11 was the first standard followed by 802.11a and then 802.11b and so on. These letters so suggest on which frequency band your device will operate in. The 802.11 b/g/n devices can receive signals that are transmitted using the 2.4 GHz band while the 802.11 a/n/ac uses 5 GHz band.



The 5 GHz Network



Now we have seen what is a wifi network, let's understand the 5GHz signal. The 5 GHz wifi network uses radio waves between the frequency of 5.180 GHz and 5.825 GHz. For a device to be able to receive these signals, it should be certified by the WLAN 802.11 a/n/ac standard. The 5 GHz signal is further divided into 24 channel and each channel is 20 MHz wide. Channel is very important as a device can use only one channel at a time.




Is 5 GHz better than 2.4 GHz?

Talking about which is better 5 GHz or 2.4 GHz network. Well, this can depend upon the circumstances. Both have their pros and cons. In some cases, 2.4 GHz is better than 5 GHz and in some 5 GHz is better. Talking generally 5 GHz will provide a faster network speed. However, there is no such reason to think higher the number yield faster network. People who don’t know about the network protocols might think so. But this can be a sort of the truth.
Problems with 2.4 GHz network
Channels and Bandwidth, these are the main reasons for 2.4 GHz networks to be slow. The 802.11RF modulation requires about 20 MHz in channel width to operate. The 2.4 GHz band has only 13 channels which are only 5 Mhz apart. There are many chances of signal overlap and interference between the channels. Also, the 2.4 GHz band is already overcrowded as it is not only used by wifi but also used by Bluetooth, Microwave, and even security cameras.
Due to the two main reasons mentioned above, 2.4 GHz band suffers a lot of interference and can cause low network speed and sometimes complete signal loss.
The radio frequency channels are a shared medium and all the devices using the same channel will be using the same bandwidth. Since the 2.4GHz network is used by various devices, that bandwidth is low. This is the reason the channels overlap with each other and there is a drop in network speed or signal loss.

Advantages of 5 GHz Network

The 5 GHz network is not used by many devices as compared to the 2.4 GHz network. This means that 5 GHz network has a lot of free bandwidth which is not being exploited. As we know that channel width is 20 MHz hence, none of the channels overlap with each other. These are the reasons that 5 GHz network does not face the problems of 2 GHz network.

Problems with 5 GHz Network

Although the 5 GHz network has advantages over a 2.4 GHz network, it suffers from its own kind of problems. The biggest problem with 5 GHz network is that its wavelength is short and it cannot travel far. It is easily obstructed by walls, doors and other physical hurdles around it. To get the best possible speed, you should direct in the line-of-sight of your router. So if you are using a single router in your home, and you are not using any repeater, the signal that you receive in your room will be weaker as compared to the signal you receive in a 2.4 GHz network.


Which is better? 5 GHz or 2.4 GHz network?

The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz network, both evolved at the same time. It is just that 2.4 GHz was cost-effective and was easier to be deployed, it became more popular than the 5 GHz network. Now that 2.4 GHz frequency is overcrowded and is causing lots of connection issues, people are switching to 5 GHz network which is sitting empty.

I hope that I was able to explain the difference between these two networks. I tried to keep this article simple so that non-technical people can also understand these two networks easily. Do not hesitate to post your comments, I would love to learn and improve in the coming future.



Tuesday, December 4, 2018

Know the difference between Visa, MasterCard and RuPay card.

Difference between Visa, Mastercard and Rupay Card

We all use debit cards. We use it for online shopping at stores and bill payments. Have you ever thought about the logo that is printed on the card with the bank name? VISA, MasterCard, RuPay etc. What are they? What is the difference between these? Let's find out here.

Whenever a bank issues you a debit card, it can issue you 3 different kinds of cards which are Visa, MasterCard or RuPay card. In this article, I am going to explain the difference between these.

But, before understanding the difference, let us first understand the need for a card. Why this debit card concept came into the picture.

The Problems

Earlier what happened, to keep our money we needed a bank. We used to deposit the cash and as per our need, we withdrew it from the bank. Since the time passed, the bank grew and so its number of customers. You had to wait in a long queue to withdraw the money. This process was consuming a lot of time and also bank has to maintain the infrastructure to handle a large number of people.

To tackle this problem, banks came with the concept of a card. They provided a card to the customer and set up an ATM (Automated Teller Machine) where you can insert your card, input your password and withdraw your money without visiting the bank.

This setup was running when another problem came into the picture. Shopping. People withdrew their money to do shopping and making payments like electricity bill, telephone bill etc. In this scenario, first, you have to withdraw the money and then do your shopping, give the cash to the seller and the seller will deposit the same money to the bank. This process was lengthy.

To overcome this problem, the concept of debit card arose. The need here is to transfer the money within the bank without the actual money in the hand. In this case, a customer can pay to the shopkeeper with a card and the money would be transferred to the shopkeeper's account directly. The shopkeeper has a card swiping machine which would read the customer details from the card like account number, account balance etc. and then generated a request to the bank to perform the transaction. However, this process looks good but it also has its cons.

This process can transfer the money into the accounts of the same bank. Means, if a customer has the account in ABC bank then the shopkeeper has to keep the card machine of ABC bank. This was problematic because customer and shopkeeper can have accounts in different banks and it is difficult to keep the card machine of each and every bank.

Understanding VISA and MasterCard

To solve this problem, two companies VISA and MasterCard came with an idea. These two are competitors in the market. They developed a network so that money can be transferred between different banks.


Difference between Visa, Mastercard and Rupay Card
VISA and MasterCard collaborated with almost every bank in the world and developed a mechanism to access their data. They provided the card number and asked the banks to print the card with their logo on it and issue it to the customer. These cards are globally acceptable.

The customer can now use this card for online shopping or in a store with POS (Point Of Sale) machine. The card is accepted at various payment gateways and now when the card is swiped a request is generated for VISA/MasterCard. Since they have access to the bank's data, they debit the amount from the customer's account and deposit that money to the seller's account. However, the money is debited instantly but the process of depositing takes one or two days.

So what we understand here is VISA and MasterCard are nothing but mediators between the customer's bank and seller's bank.

These two are American companies. They charge a fee for every transaction happen through them. The fees vary between 1% to 2%. The servers for these companies are located outside India. They keep all the logs and have access to every transactional data.

Evolution of RuPay Card

Let's talk about India. The transaction that happens within the country. The seller and the customer, bank accounts of both are located within the country. There is no need to that first the request is sent to an international company, then they process that request and deposit that money to an Indian bank only.

So if the transaction is meant to stay within the country then why would we expose our data to the outside world. This information is sensitive. The request sent to VISA and MasterCard may contain your account details, account balance etc. To mitigate this risk NCPI (National Payment Corporation of India) came with the same idea like VISA and MasterCard but which can be mostly used in India only.

NCPI developed RuPay card. The RuPay card was launched on 26 March 2012. RuPay comprises of two words, Rupee + Payment. They collaborated with all the banks in India. As compared to VISA and MasterCard, the transaction fees for using a RuPay card is negligible and also the fees for issuing a RuPay card is almost zero. Also, the information sent over to perform a transaction stays within the country and data is not being shared with the outside world.


Difference between Visa, Mastercard and Rupay Card
Since RuPay has been developed by GOI (Government of India), the government is promoting the banks to issue RuPay card to their customers. RuPay card is getting popular day by day and VISA and MasterCard are losing market shares in India so they have now started their advertisements on television saying their cards are globally accepted which is true.

But, if a transaction is meant for India only, there is no need to pay a hefty transaction fee to international companies like these where the 100% profit is taken to outside India. Instead, we can use RuPay card where the profit stays in India and can be used to develop the Indian economy and infrastructure.

RuPay also has international existence where the card provided is RuPay Platinum card. Banks decide on their own to whom this card has to be issued. Mostly the card issued is a RuPay card.

The bottom line is VISA, MasterCard and RuPay, all are mediators, a network to make the inter-bank transaction possible for which they charge a fee for every transaction.

I hope you liked this article. Keep reading, more to come.




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